Equine Activity Statutes
Equine Activity Statutes
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Wyoming


CHAPTER 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO CIVIL ACTIONS

1-1-101. Provisions to be liberally construed.

The Code of Civil Procedure [this title] and all proceedings under it shall be liberally construed to promote its object and assist the parties in obtaining justice. The rule of common law that statutes in derogation thereof must be strictly construed has no application to the Code of Civil Procedure, but this shall not be so construed as to require a liberal construction of provisions affecting personal liberty, relating to amercement or of a penal nature.

1-1-102. Minors as parties to actions.

Every person over fourteen (14) years of age and under the age of majority, when subject to no disability other than being a minor, may sue or be sued. When plaintiff he shall sue by a next friend selected by him before suit is commenced. The next friend is liable for the cost chargeable to the plaintiff. When the minor is sued he shall appear by guardian nominated by him and appointed by the court before further proceedings are had in the case, but judgment shall be against the minor defendant only. In either case, if plaintiff or defendant neglects or refuses to nominate a next friend or guardian, the court shall appoint a next friend or guardian, who shall file his consent in writing, with the court.

1-1-103. Power of deputies.

A duty enjoined by statute upon a ministerial officer or an act permitted to be done by him may be performed by his lawful deputy.

1-1-104. Sureties; justification.

A court or an officer authorized by law to approve a surety may require such person to testify orally or in writing touching his sufficiency, but this in itself shall not exonerate the officer in an action for taking insufficient surety.

1-1-105. Sureties; qualifications.

Sureties shall be residents of this state, worth in the aggregate double the sum to be secured, beyond the amount of their debts, and have property liable to execution in this state equal to the sum to be secured. Every person acting as surety for another shall file with the court his affidavit showing that he meets the requirements set forth herein.

1-1-106. Compensation of cross demands.

When cross demands exist between persons under circumstances that if one brought an action against the other, a counterclaim or setoff could be set up, neither can be deprived of the benefit thereof by assignment by the other, or by his death, but the two (2) demands will be deemed compensated so far as they equal each other.

1-1-107. Furnishing of transcripts.

Upon request and receipt of the lawful fees required, justices of the peace and judges of other judicial tribunals and the clerks of every court of record, shall furnish to any person an authenticated transcript of proceedings containing the judgment or final order in their court.

1-1-108. Voluntary partial payment of liability claims.

No voluntary partial payment of a claim based on alleged liability for injury or property damage shall be construed as an admission of fault or liability, or as a waiver or release of claim by the person receiving payment.

Such payment is not admissible as evidence in any action for the purpose of determining the amount of any judgment, with respect to the parties to the occurrence from which the claim arose. Upon settlement of the claim, the parties may make any agreement they desire in respect to all voluntary partial payments.

After entry of judgment, any such payment shall be treated as a credit and deducted from the amount of the judgment. If after partial voluntary payments are made it is determined by final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction that the payor is liable for an amount less than the voluntary payments already made, the payor has no right of action for the recovery of amounts by which the voluntary payments exceed the final judgment.

No voluntary partial payments shall be construed to reduce the amount of damages which may be pleaded and proved in a court proceeding between the parties.

1-1-109. Comparative fault.

(a) As used in this section:

(i) "Actor" means a person or other entity, including the claimant, whose fault is determined to be a proximate cause of the death, injury or damage, whether or not the actor is a party to the litigation;

(ii) "Claimant" means a natural person, including the personal representative of a deceased person, or any legal entity, including corporations, limited liability companies, partnerships or unincorporated associations, and includes a third party plaintiff and a counterclaiming defendant;

(iii) "Defendant" means a party to the litigation against whom a claim for damages is asserted, and includes third party defendants. Where there is a counterclaim, the claimant against whom the counterclaim is asserted is also a defendant;

(iv) "Fault" includes acts or omissions, determined to be a proximate cause of death or injury to person or property, that are in any measure negligent, or that subject an actor to strict tort or strict products liability, and includes breach of warranty, assumption of risk and misuse or alteration of a product;

(v) "Injury to person or property," in addition to bodily injury, includes, without limitation, loss of enjoyment of life, emotional distress, pain and suffering, disfigurement, physical or mental disability, loss of earnings or income, damage to reputation, loss of consortium, loss of profits and all other such claims and causes of action arising out of the fault of an actor;

(vi) "Wrongful death" means that cause of action authorized by Wyoming statute to recover money damages when the death of a person is caused by the fault of an actor such as would have entitled the party injured to maintain an action to recover damages if death had not ensued.

(b) Contributory fault shall not bar a recovery in an action by any claimant or the claimant's legal representative to recover damages for wrongful death or injury to person or property, if the contributory fault of the claimant is not more than fifty percent (50%) of the total fault of all actors. Any damages allowed shall be diminished in proportion to the amount of fault attributed to the claimant.

(c) Whether or not the claimant is free of fault, the court shall:

(i) If a jury trial:

(A) Direct the jury to determine the total amount of damages sustained by the claimant without regard to the percentage of fault attributed to the claimant, and the percentage of fault attributable to each actor; and

(B) Inform the jury of the consequences of its determination of the percentage of fault.

(ii) If a trial before the court without jury, make special findings of fact, determining the total amount of damages sustained by the claimant without regard to the percentage of fault attributed to the claimant, and the percentage of fault attributable to each actor.

(d) The court shall reduce the amount of damages determined under subsection (c) of this section in proportion to the percentage of fault attributed to the claimant and enter judgment against each defendant in the amount determined under subsection (e) of this section.

(e) Each defendant is liable only to the extent of that defendant's proportion of the total fault determined under paragraph (c)(i) or (ii) of this section.

1-1-110. Repealed by Laws 1986, ch. 24, § 2.

1-1-111. Repealed by Laws 1986, ch. 24, § 2.

1-1-112. Repealed by Laws 1986, ch. 24, § 2.

1-1-113. Repealed by Laws 1986, ch. 24, § 2.

1-1-114. Pleading of damages.

The ad damnum clause or prayer for damages incorporated in a pleading which sets forth a claim for relief based upon personal injury or wrongful death shall not state any dollar amount as alleged damages or demand a sum as judgment other than an allegation that the damages are of an amount necessary to establish jurisdiction of the court.

Nothing herein shall be construed to prevent any party from arguing to the court or jury the amount of his claim in money. In all cases the court shall inform the jury of the consequences of its verdict.

1-1-115. Civil liability for unpaid checks.

(a) Any person who issues a check which is not paid because the check has been dishonored for any reason has thirty (30) days following the date of a written demand mailed to the drawer of the check by United States postal service certificate of mailing at the address shown on the check or his last known address or personally served pursuant to the Wyoming Rules of Civil Procedure, to pay to the holder of the check the amount of the check and a collection fee not to exceed thirty dollars ($30.00). The demand shall state that the drawer is required to pay the value of the check and the collection fee demanded and shall state the collection fee provided for in this section.

(b) Any person who fails to pay the amount of the check and the collection fee as set forth in subsection (a) of this section within thirty (30) days following the date of a written demand, mailed to or served on the drawer in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, is liable to the holder of the check for three (3) times the amount of the check, but in no case less than one hundred dollars ($100.00), a collection fee of thirty dollars ($30.00), and court costs.

(c) In extraordinary cases, including cases in which the court determines that the party who wrote the check has raised dilatory or bad faith defenses, the court may award the prevailing party reasonable attorney fees.

(d) Nothing in this section shall prevent the criminal prosecution of the person who issues the check. However, any payment made by the defendant to a victim pursuant to an order for restitution entered in a criminal case pursuant to W.S. 7-9-101 through 7-9-112 or 6-3-704(b), shall be set off against any judgment in favor of the victim in a civil action brought under this section arising out of the same facts or event.

(e) A cause of action under this section may be brought in small claims court, if the amount of the demand does not exceed the jurisdiction of that court, or in any other appropriate court.

(f) As used in this section, "check," "drawee," "drawer" and "issue" have the same meaning as defined in W.S. 6-3-701.

1-1-116. Civil liability for theft of services.

(a) Notwithstanding any criminal penalties which may apply, an owner or operator of a franchised or otherwise duly licensed provider of services may bring a civil action to enjoin or restrain any violation of W.S. 6-3-408 and may in the same action seek damages from the person violating W.S. 6-3-408.

(b) In order to maintain an action for injunctive relief under this section, it is not necessary for the plaintiff to show actual damages or the threat of actual damages.

(c) As used in this section "services" has the same meaning as specified in W.S. 6-3-408.

1-1-117. Affidavits of noninvolvement.

(a) In any action, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, in which the plaintiff seeks damages, a party may, in lieu of answering or otherwise pleading, file an affidavit certifying that he was not directly or indirectly involved in the occurrence or occurrences alleged in the action. If an affidavit is filed, the court shall order the dismissal of the claim against the certifying party, except as provided for in subsection (b) of this section. The affidavit shall be filed within the time required for filing an answer, if no answer is filed; and, in any event, at least twenty (20) days prior to trial. Any order of dismissal based on the affidavit shall not be entered within ten (10) days after the affidavit is filed.

(b) Any party may oppose the dismissal or move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying party, provided he can show that the certifying party was directly or indirectly involved in the occurrence or occurrences alleged in the action. After the filing of an affidavit under this section, the party opposing the dismissal may have discovery with respect to the involvement or noninvolvement of the party filing the affidavit, provided the discovery is completed within sixty (60) days of the filing of the affidavit.

1-1-118. Amateur rodeos; liability for injuries; consent to participate.

(a) No public school or nonprofit organization sponsoring an amateur rodeo is liable for injuries suffered by a contestant as a result of his voluntary participation in a rodeo event except for injuries caused by the willful, wanton or reckless act of the sponsoring organization or its employees.

(b) A minor shall be deemed to be a voluntary participant for purposes of this section if he has signed a written consent to participate in the rodeo event and the consent is also signed by one (1) of the minor's parents or by his legal guardian.

1-1-119. Release or covenant not to sue.

When a release or a covenant not to sue or not to enforce judgment is given in good faith to one (1) of two (2) or more persons liable in tort for the same injury or the same wrongful death, it does not discharge any of the other tortfeasors from liability for the injury or wrongful death unless its terms so provide.

1-1-120. Persons rendering emergency assistance exempt from civil liability.

(a) Any person licensed as a physician and surgeon under the laws of the state of Wyoming, or any other person, who in good faith renders emergency care or assistance without compensation at the place of an emergency or accident, is not liable for any civil damages for acts or omissions in good faith.

(b) Persons or organizations operating volunteer ambulances or rescue vehicles supported by public or private funds, staffed by unpaid volunteers, and which make no charge for services rendered during medical emergencies, and the unpaid volunteers who staff ambulances and rescue vehicles are not liable for any civil damages for acts or omissions in good faith in furnishing emergency medical services. This immunity does not apply to acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.

(c) Any person who provides assistance or advice without compensation other than reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses in mitigating or attempting to mitigate the effects of an actual or threatened discharge of hazardous materials, or in preventing, cleaning up or disposing of or in attempting to prevent, clean up or dispose of any discharge of hazardous materials, is not liable for any civil damages for acts or omissions in good faith in providing the assistance or advice. This immunity does not apply to acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct. As used in this subsection:

(i) "Discharge" includes leakage, seepage or other release;

(ii) "Hazardous materials" includes all materials and substances which are now or hereafter designated or defined as hazardous by any state or federal law or by the regulations of any state or federal government agency.

1-1-121. Recreation Safety Act; short title.

This act shall be known and may be cited as the "Recreation Safety Act".

1-1-122. Definitions.

(a) As used in this act:

(i) "Inherent risk" with regard to any sport or recreational opportunity means those dangers or conditions which are characteristic of, intrinsic to, or an integral part of any sport or recreational opportunity;

(ii) "Provider" means any person or governmental entity which for profit or otherwise, offers or conducts a sport or recreational opportunity. This act does not apply to a cause of action based upon the design or manufacture of sport or recreational equipment or products or safety equipment used incidental to or required by the sport or recreational opportunity;

(iii) "Sport or recreational opportunity" means commonly understood sporting activities including baseball, softball, football, soccer, basketball, swimming, hockey, dude ranching, nordic or alpine skiing, mountain climbing, river floating, hunting, fishing, backcountry trips, horseback riding and any other equine activity, snowmobiling and similar recreational opportunities;

(iv) "Equine activity" means:

(A) Equine shows, fairs, competitions, performances or parades that involve any or all breeds of equines;

(B) Any of the equine disciplines;

(C) Equine training or teaching activities, or both;

(D) Boarding equines;

(E) Riding, inspecting or evaluating an equine belonging to another, whether or not the owner has received some monetary consideration or other thing of value for the use of the equine or is permitting a prospective purchaser of the equine to ride, inspect or evaluate the equine;

(F) Rides, trips, hunts or other equine activities of any type however informal or impromptu;

(G) Day use rental riding, riding associated with a dude ranch or riding associated with outfitted pack trips; and

(H) Placing or replacing horseshoes on an equine.

(v) Repealed By Laws 1996, ch. 78, § 2.

(vi) "This act" means W.S. 1-1-121 through 1-1-123.

1-1-123. Assumption of risk.

(a) Any person who takes part in any sport or recreational opportunity assumes the inherent risks in that sport or recreational opportunity, whether those risks are known or unknown, and is legally responsible for any and all damage, injury or death to himself or other persons or property that results from the inherent risks in that sport or recreational opportunity.

(b) A provider of any sport or recreational opportunity is not required to eliminate, alter or control the inherent risks within the particular sport or recreational opportunity.

(c) Actions based upon negligence of the provider wherein the damage, injury or death is not the result of an inherent risk of the sport or recreational opportunity shall be preserved pursuant to W.S. 1-1-109.

1-1-124. Pretrial screening.

(a) The supreme court may promulgate rules to provide a screening procedure to expedite the prelitigation resolution of claims arising from any alleged act, error or omission in the rendering of licensed or certified professional or health care services.

(b) The screening procedure authorized by this section shall be designed to reduce the burden of malpractice cases on the state judicial system and to encourage the prompt resolution of nonmeritorious claims. The expedited procedure may include the creation of professional review panels to review claims and to determine:

(i) Whether there is substantial evidence that the acts complained of occurred, constituted malpractice and resulted in injury to the claimant; and

(ii) A recommended award if requested by the parties.

(c) The supreme court shall annually report to the legislature the costs of operating the expedited screening procedure and shall submit a recommendation for the proration and assessment of costs among the professions subject to the pretrial screening procedure.

1-1-125. Immunity for volunteers; volunteer firefighters.

(a) As used in this section:

(i) "Compensation" does not include actual and necessary expenses that are incurred by a volunteer in connection with the services that the volunteer performs for a nonprofit organization and that are reimbursed to the volunteer or otherwise paid nor does it include any incidental personal privileges received by volunteers for their services;

(ii) "Nonprofit organization" means those nonprofit organizations exempt from federal income tax pursuant to section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code;

(iii) "Volunteer" means an officer, director, trustee or other person who performs services for a nonprofit organization but does not receive compensation, either directly or indirectly, for those services, or a volunteer firefighter who performs services for a volunteer fire department under W.S. 35-9-601(h) whether or not he receives compensation or a pension.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a volunteer who provides services or performs duties on behalf of a nonprofit organization or a volunteer fire department is personally immune from civil liability for any act or omission resulting in damage or injury if at the time of the act or omission:

(i) The person was acting within the scope of his duties as a volunteer for the nonprofit organization or volunteer fire department; and

(ii) The act or omission did not constitute willful or wanton misconduct or gross negligence.

(c) This section does not grant immunity to any person causing damage as a result of the negligent operation of a motor vehicle.

(d) In any suit against a nonprofit organization or a volunteer fire department for civil damages based upon the negligent act or omission of a volunteer, proof of the act or omission shall be sufficient to establish the responsibility of the organization or department under the doctrine of respondeat superior, notwithstanding the immunity granted to the volunteer with respect to any act or omission included under subsection (b) of this section.

1-1-126. Civil liability for stalking.

(a) A person who is the victim of stalking as defined by W.S. 6-2-506 may maintain a civil action against an individual who engages in a course of conduct that is prohibited under W.S. 6-2-506 for damages incurred by the victim as a result of that conduct. The aggrieved party may also seek and be awarded exemplary damages, reasonable attorney's fees and costs of the action.

(b) A civil action may be maintained under this section whether or not the individual who is alleged to have engaged in a course of conduct prohibited under W.S. 6-2-506 has been charged or convicted under W.S. 6-2-506 for the alleged crime.

(c) Neither the pendency nor the termination of a civil action under this section shall prevent the criminal prosecution of a person who violates W.S. 6-2-506.

1-1-127. Civil liability for shoplifting.

(a) A person over ten (10) years of age who violates W.S. 6-3-404(a) or (b) is civilly liable to the merchant of the property in an amount consisting of:

(i) Return of the property in original condition or actual damages equal to the full marked or listed price of the property; plus

(ii) A civil liability of twice the amount of the full marked or listed price of the property but not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00); plus

(iii) Reasonable attorney's fees and court costs.

(b) If an unemancipated minor violates W.S. 6-3-404(a) or (b), the parents or guardian of the child shall be civilly liable as provided by subsection (a) of this section, provided liability under this subsection shall not apply to foster parents, to parents whose parental custody and control of the child have been terminated by court order prior to the violation or to any governmental or private agency that has been appointed guardian for the minor child pursuant to court order or action of the department of family services. Civil liability under this subsection is not subject to the limitation on liability provided by W.S. 14-2-203 or any other law that limits the liability of parents for damages caused by an unemancipated minor.

(c) A conviction or a plea of guilty to a violation of W.S. 6-3-404(a) or (b) is not a prerequisite to the bringing of a civil suit under this section.

(d) An action to recover damages and any civil liability under this section may be brought in small claims court if the total amount of the demand for damages and any civil liability does not exceed the jurisdiction of that court, or in any other appropriate court.

(e) In order to recover damages and any civil liability under this act, the merchant of the property shall also notify law enforcement officials.

1-1-128. Civil liability for theft of identity.

(a) A person who is the victim of theft of identity as defined by W.S. 6-3-901 may maintain a civil action to enjoin or restrain any violation of W.S. 6-3-901 and may in the same action seek damages from the person violating W.S. 6-3-901. In order to maintain an action for injunctive relief under this section, it is not necessary for the plaintiff to show actual damages or the threat of actual damages. A prevailing party in an action under this section may recover court costs and reasonable attorney fees.

(b) A conviction or plea of guilty is not a prerequisite to the bringing of a civil action under this section.

(c) A cause of action for theft of identity is not deemed to have accrued until the wrongdoer is discovered.

(d) Nothing in this section shall prevent the criminal prosecution of a person for theft of identity. However, any payment made by the defendant to a victim pursuant to an order for restitution entered in a criminal case pursuant to W.S. 6-3-901 and 7-9-101 through 7-9-115, shall be set off against any judgment in favor of the victim in a civil action brought under this section arising out of the same facts or event.



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